Minggu, 08 Februari 2015

7 Amazing Uses For Activated Charcoal

7 Amazing Uses For Activated Charcoal - Commonly referred to as Active Carbon or simply Carbon, Activated Charcoal is produced from organic materials such as coconut fiber, nutshells, peat, wood, or pitch through one of several processes involving the use of oxygen and high temperatures to open millions of micro-pores within its atomic structure.  Because of this highly-porous structure, Activated Charcoal is extremely absorptive making it ideal for a variety of medical, beauty and household uses.

1. Poison Antidote
AC absorbs other organic compounds by attaching to them at a molecular level.  When introduced into the digestive tract, AC traps and holds toxins and chemicals while ignoring the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the lining of the intestines.  Once all of their copious number of bonding sites are filled, AC particles pass harmlessly out of the body carrying the trapped poisons with them.  Activated Charcoal can be ingested after swallowing poison or in case of accidental overdose to reduce the risk of serious harm to the body – especially helpful if immediate medical treatment is not available.  For this reason alone, it is always a good idea to keep a bottle or two of Activated Charcoal around the house or in your first aid kit.

A liquid suspension of Activated Charcoal can also be administered to pets who have been exposed to household chemicals such as insecticide, rat poison, fertilizer, toxic cleaners, etc by use of a feeding syringe.

Remember, if you or someone you know has ingested poison, seek medical attention immediately!  Carbon is not a substitute for professional medical treatment and should only be administered after contacting Poison Control.

2. Air and Water Purification
If you’ve ever had a water filtering pitcher such as those made by Brita, you’ve probably seen the little black specks of AC that sometimes escape from the filter.  For the same reason that it is used to filter toxins from the digestive tracts of humans and animals, another application of Activated Charcoal is to filter impurities from water.

Furthermore, Activated Charcoal if perfect for air filtration in that it is odorless and catches a majority of airborne contaminants.  Great for those prone to respiratory ailments, you can buy them from most supermarkets and home improvement stores, or make your own!

3. Digestive Aid
Activated charcoal can be taken orally to regulate gastrointestinal function, more specifically to reduce bloating and flatulence, remove unwanted toxins that may hinder digestion, and promote regular bowel movements.  Side effects of taking Activated Charcoal are not common, but they do exist.  As always, consult a physician for more information before taking any new supplements.

4. Bites and Stings
Try mixing Activated Charcoal with Aloe or water to create a poultice that will draw poison from insect bites and stings and even snake bites.  If administered within a few minutes of the injury, this treatment will reduce both pain and swelling.  Always be sure to monitor any injury of this nature as many bites and stings can be fatal if not treated quickly and with the proper antidote.  If you see red streaks under the skin, excessive swelling, or unusual color around the wound, seek medical attention immediately.

5. Whiten Teeth
Activated Charcoal can be used with toothpaste or by itself, with a toothbrush or as a mouth rinse to whiten teeth naturally.  Carbon bonds to many of the organic compounds that stain teeth.  It is also worth noting that activated charcoal is softer than other abrasives frequently used in commercial toothpastes, ie: calcium carbonate, aluminium hydroxide, silica, etc.  While Activated Charcoal may not scrub plaque from teeth in the same manner as store-bought paste, it will affect a noticeable difference in the appearance of surface stains.

6. Clarify Skin
When mixed with aloe, water, and essential oils such as tea tree or eucalyptus, Activated Charcoal can be mixed into a cleansing mask for your face or incorporated into a body scrub.  While the Carbon works wonders to clarify skin of organic impurities, it may also linger as black dots in your pores.  You can use steam, a hot wash cloth, and baking soda to remove these.

7. Detoxification
Just as Activated Charcoal can pull contaminants from your pores, it can also be mixed as a poultice treatment to draw toxins from the body.  Your skin already does a great job of ejecting toxins from your body using sweat as a carrier (one of the main reasons to always stay well-hydrated.)  Still, toxins can become trapped in muscle and adipose tissues causing soreness, lethargy, and other health problems.  Try mixing Activated Charcoal with Bentonite Clay and Coconut Oil to create a detoxifying poultice.  Apply over sore muscles using gauze or a cloth wrap and leave on for several hours for maximum effect.

Activated Charcoal is available in many forms including capsule, powder, liquid, and premixed for cosmetic use. (activated carbon indonesia)
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Characteristics of Activated Carbon

Characteristics of Activated Carbon - The effectiveness of activated carbon as an adsorbent is attributed to its unique properties, including “large surface area, a high degree of surface reactivity, universal adsorption effect, and favorable pore size,” according to Bansal.

Activated carbon is often characterized by its extremely large surface area. In fact, the surface area per gram of material can range from 500 to 1400 square meters, and values as high as 2500 m2/g have been reported.

The complex internal surface area is usually divided into three components. Channels and pores with diameters less than 2 nm are commonly known as micropores; these micropores generally contain the largest portion of the carbon’s surface area. On the other hand, pores with diameters between 2 and 50 nm are known as mesopores, and pores with diameters greater than 50 nm are defined as macropores.

For comparison, a given type or sample of activated carbon is usually quantified based on four primary criteria: total surface area, carbon density, particle size distribution, and adsorptive capacity. Of course, all of these factors influence adsorption rate and capacity.

Total surface area is measured by the adsorption of nitrigen gas onto the carbon and is expressed in square meters of surface area per gram of carbon. Because the gas molecules used to measure adsorption are very small, it should be noted that this measurement of surface area may be misleading when considering the adsorptive capacity of a carbon for large organic macromolecules. Those types of compounds may have adsorption limited by pore size considerations.

Carbon density is the weight of one milliliter of carbon in air. Bulk density is also sometimes used for carbon as it is for soil, and is expressed in pounds per cubic foot or in kilograms per liter.
Particle sizes in carbons are measured using standard U.S. sieve sizes, as for soil constituents. Particle size distributions are important in carbon systems because they influence handling of the activated carbon material. For example, in granular carbon, the particle size affects hydraulic loading and backwash rates for a filter. On the other hand, particle size is often important because of its effect on adsorption rates as well.

Adsorptive capacity is characterized by the effectiveness of activated carbon in removing a given contaminant. For comparison, several standard compounds are used for these measurements. For example, the commonly-used ‘iodine number’ describes the carbon’s capacity to adsorb low-molecular-weight substances, while the ‘molasses number’ characterizes a carbon’s capacity for more complex compounds.

The structural properties of activated carbon are very important to its effectiveness as an adsorbent, though activated carbon’s structure is not fully understood and is difficult to explain with text. In general, activated carbon is sometimes described as having a ‘crumpled’ layered surface, in which flat sheets are broken and curved back upon themselves. This unique structure creates activated carbon’s very large surface area. It can be more properly visualized with the attached images, which provide both electron microscope photos and conceptual diagrams of the surface structure.(activated carbon indonesia)
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Activated carbon: Regeneration or reactivation?

Activated carbon: Regeneration or reactivation? - While most spent activated carbon (SAC) used in POU/POE systems is disposed of, regeneration and reactivation are viable options for industrial facilities and municipalities looking to reduce their carbon footprints or to save money. The terms regeneration and reactivation are often used interchangeably, but in truth they are very different processes. Basically, regeneration involves removing contaminants from carbon without destroying them. In contrast, reactivation utilizes a high temperature process in a controlled environment to destroy all contaminants. The reactivation process effectively redevelops the pore structure within the carbon to enhance its ability to continue in operation.

According to Leo P. Zappa, industry manager – municipal for Calgon Carbon Corporation, reactivation is the only way to ensure that all the contaminants absorbed by the SAC have been completely destroyed. “Reactivation is a complete destruction and [an] adsorption capacity recovery process,” Zappa explains. “The optimization of pore structures during reactivation also yields a more usable reactivated carbon product.”

Robert Potwora, technical director for Carbon Resources LLC, also favors reactivation over regeneration. “Reactivation allows up to 95 percent of the virgin activated carbon capacity to be restored,” he says. “The activated carbon can almost be reactivated indefinitely.” And an obvious benefit, Potwora adds, is that reactivation prevents SAC from ending up in landfills.

Benefits of reactivation
Reactivation of SAC presents invaluable environmental benefits over regeneration or disposal. Reactivation eliminates a waste that could otherwise be a long-term environmental liability if it is disposed of in a landfill. Another benefit, according to Zappa, is that reactivation creates a usable product from a waste material. “The usable product is considered a ‘green’ product since reactivation produces about 20 percent of the greenhouse gases as making virgin activated carbon,” he explains.

Reactivation can also provide significant cost savings. For example, a process known as “custom reactivation” has been introduced in recent years. With custom reactivation, a municipality sends its SAC to a reactivation facility where it is reactivated, blended with a small amount of virgin carbon and returned for reinstallation and continued use. “In these cases,” Zappa says, “the custom reactivated product is returned to the original customer at a significant cost savings when compared to the costs of buying virgin activated carbon and disposing of the spent [carbon] in a landfill or incinerator.”

Additionally, some facilities that use reactivated carbon may qualify to receive environmental credits issued by regulatory agencies for waste minimization.

Unfortunately, a water treatment dealer that serves the residential and commercial markets would have to have a very high volume of SAC for reactivation to make sense economically. “We really don’t have a great recycling or reuse option at this point,” says Dennis Roberts, director North America for Filtrex Corporation. “Most of this stuff just ends up in the landfill.” However, there are options available for dealers who sell activated carbon but still want to go green.

The traditional charring method of activating virgin carbon, commonly known as the open pit method, involves the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) — such as methane, CO2 and a wide range of organic vapors — into the atmosphere. In fact, one ton of granulated activated carbon produced by the open pit method emits more than 8,000 pounds of CO2.

According to Roberts, a new charring method has been developed that captures the GHGs before they are released into the environment. In this process, the gas is captured to fire a boiler, which creates steam for a kiln. The steam is then harnessed in a steam engine that creates electricity.

Source : http://www.watertechonline.com/articles/activated-carbon-regeneration-or-reactivation
(activated carbon indonesia)
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